Iranians History on This Day

 Aug 3 

Babak Khorramdin A Persian Revolutionary
Babak Khorram-Din, one of the main Persian revolutionary leaders, initiator of a new social theory (derived from Mazdakism – so called Neo Mazdakism = socialism) and a different religious belief (Behdin = Zoroastrianism), who had risen against the Abbasid Caliphate in the north/west areas of Iran, and had created great problems for Mutasim (Abu Ishaq Abbas al-Mutasim ibn Harun), the then Caliph, was captured on 3 August, 837 AD, while fleeing towards Armenia.
    Babak was defeated in the war with the Caliph forces, in command of Afshin, the son of Kavoos, and fled. He had defeated Afshin in Maragheh but later was defeated in another war, in 835 AD.
    After being transferred to Samara (city of Samarra), the new capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, Babak was killed on January 4th, 838 AD, after tremendous tortures. During Babak s execution, the Caliph’s henchmen first cut off his legs and hands in order to convey the most devastating message to his followers. Babak bravely rinsed his face with the drained blood pouring out of his cuts, thus depriving the Caliph and the rest of the Abbasid army from seeing his pale face, a result of the heavy loss of blood.
    Upon the order of Mutasim, Babak s head was sent to Khorasan, to scare the Iranian independence seekers and his body was hung in Samara, and was on the gallows for a long time.
    Babak was born into a Persian family in the village of Balal-abad in the city of Ardabil (artavilla) district, Azerbaijan. Babak s father was a Persian from Ctesiphon area, capital city of Persian Empire). The death of Abu Muslim of Khorassan, a famous Persian nationalist by the then Abbasid Caliph in 755 AD led to many revolts, mostly by angry Zoroastrians and Babak joined the Khorramiyah (Khorram-Dinan) which they scattered in Isfahan, Azerbaijan, Ray, Hamadan, Armenia, Gorgan, and elsewhere in Iran.
    Babak was a highly spiritual person who respected his Zoroastrian heritage. He made every possible effort to bring Iranians together and also with leaders such as Mazyar to form a united front against the Arab Caliph. Babak not only fought against the Caliphate, but also for the preservation of Persian Language and culture. Babak’s revolution lasted twenty years.
    Simultaneously, and in the course of Babak s revolution, in other parts of Iran, several uprisings started.
    In Mazandaran, (Tabarestan or Tapurestan), in 834 AD, Mazyar, the governor of this province, rose against Mutasim and started establishing an army, but was defeated in the war with Mutasim forces. He was taken prisoner, transferred to Samara, and there was whipped to death. His body was hung next to the remaining bones of Babak. The Caliph thought it the right time to get rid of Afshin because he did not need him any more. The Caliph did not trust him from the beginning and considered him to be actually an Iranian nationalist. Therefore, he took the confession of Mazyar (to have been in contact with Afshin at some time) as an excuse to arrest Afshin and accuse him of betraying the Caliph. Mutasim, who once had high respect for Afshin, put him in prison and killed him by giving him hunger and thirst, and hanged his body next to the bodies of the two heroes, in 810 AD.
    This is the story of the three brave Iranians who were killed by the hands of each other.
    History showed that Mutasim (833 - 842) did not finally succeed, and from every drop of Iranian blood many more patriots were born. We should note that the Abbasid dynasty came to power with the help of Iranians.
    Mutasim, Al-Mamun s half-brother (from a Turkic mother), who became the Abbasid Caliph, after the death of his brother in 833 AD, transferred the capital from Baghdad, which had become unquiet, to Samara, after 3 years, and gave the responsibility of guarding the city to his Turkic soldiers and had banned them from being in contact with the Arab soldiers Mamun, whose mother was a Persian, and had won the Caliphate with the help of Iranians, kept his position for 20 years, and with the help of Iranian knowledge and wisdom, which guided the administrative, political and cultural affairs, his Caliphate period enjoyed flourish of cultural and trade relations with far way countries.
    Al-Mutasim passed away on January 5, 842. He was succeeded by his son, al-Wathiq.
    Translation by Rowshan Lohrasbpour (Amordad-News writer)
Migration of the Iranian tribe, Sakaha (Scythians), to south of Russia
Migration of the Iranian tribe, Sakaha (called ”Sitis =Scythians” by ancient Greek historians) to the south of Russia ended in summer of 700 BC. Sakaha moved from Soghdiana and other areas of today’s Tajikistan and its surrounding regions. A group of them went towards the south and settled in Sistan, and the name of Sistan (Sakastan) is taken from this tribe. Sakaha followed the Pars, Medes and Parthian people, who formed the Aryans, and came from Central Asia towards the southern areas of the Iranian plateaus and south of Russia. The Medes tribe had first moved to the northern plateaus of Iran after passing through south of Russia. The migrating Sakaha (Scythians) tried not to enter the area that is now called Moscowa because this area was already occupied by the Fino-Ugric tribes who were non-Aryan. Those two tribes had moved from Ural and are now mainly settled in Finland and Esthonia. Some of the characteristics of the Iranian tribes, including the Sakaha (Scythians), were their skill in horse riding and archery. They would bury their dead in closed places, on heights (dakhma) and this custom continued until the plateaus of Iran fell into the hands of Arabs. Another characteristic of the Iranian tribes was their attachment to relatives and their commitment towards the aged family members, cleanliness of the body and environment, clothes that covered the whole body, and abstaining from corruption and lying. The archers were called ‘sekuza’ or ‘eskuza’ and the term ‘Eskod’ (a kind of a Russian missile) is taken from this word. Many of the people settled in an area between and around Don and Dnieper rivers, after centuries of Mogul domination, still use old Persian terms and consider the ancient customs of the Iranian tribe.
    Translation by Rowshan Lohrasbpour (Amordad-News writer)




 Contact Author: n.keihanizade [a]