Iranians History on This Day

 Nov 18 

The Day That Bahram Goor Became the King of Iran

This piece of history will be completely edited later

    After Yazdgard I, the Sassanid king, was killed by the kick of a horse, near Nayshapour, in 420 AD, on 18 November of the same year (28 Aban) his son, Bahram, declared himself king. Shapour, the elder brother of Bahram, had been killed before, in a battle, and Nersi, the middle son, did not accept sovereignty, and on the other hand, the Iranian noble men were not agreeable to Bahram being enthroned as king (Bahram was famous as Bahram Goor, which means hunter of zebra). One of the reasons of their objection was that his mother, Soushandokht, was an Iranian Jew. During the 21 years reign of Yazdgard I the Iranian noble men had become very sensitive because Yazdgard had given extensive freedom of religion to the Christians in the Iranian territory and had even granted them freedom of propaganda and building churches. The noble men feared that Bahram, having a Jewish mother, would follow his father’s policy regarding freedom of religion. In addition,
     his military tutor, Monzar bin Naghman (ruler of Hara, and in those times a vast area south of present Iraq, consisting of part of the present S.Arabia and Kuwait, where the Lakhmiun tribe were dwelling, and was called the Iranian Arabia) was a Christian. Having these facts in mind, the Iranian noble men elected a prince by the name of Khosrow as king of Iran. But Bahram, who was a brave military man and had many supporters in the army, won over them. There are many stories about the enthroning of Bahram, for instance, the crown was kept between two lions and whichever of the two (Bahram or Khosrow) would catch hold of it would be king, and Bahram snatched the crown from between the lions! After this victory Bahram did not follow his father’s policy (freedom of religion) and upon request of the mobeds, went to Azarbaijan and paid tribute to Azargoshasp Fire temple, in the Gazan (or Jazan) area. To satisfy the Mobeds, Bahram, who ruled for 17
     years, even nullified Armenia’s autonomy (which existed from Darius the Great) and turned it into a satrapi (province). Most of the Armenians had become Christian from long back. Bahram defeated the Romans, who had decided to support the Christians in Iran territory, in a war, and drove out the Hapthalites from the northeast borders of Iran (borders of Soghdiana = Tajikistan, which at that time consisted of Balkh, Panjshir Valley and the whole of Transoxiania: Bukhara, Samarghand, Kharazm, and…) Bahram disappeared in 438 AD, while hunting zebras and for about two years the Iranians thought him to be living, so did not elect any king. Some historians have guessed that he was drowned in the marshes of Zayandeh River. Ferdowsi has a verse about the death of Bahram Goor:
    Bahram who would hunt zebras all his life;
    See how he was hunted by the zebras.
    Tabari, the famous Iranian historian (born in Amol, Mazandaran) called Bahram V a progressive king with flourishing ideas, who had built national parks and government buildings wherever he could. The Sassanid palace of Sarvestan (Fars province) is remains of the period of Bahram V.



    Translation by Rowshan Lohrasbpour (AmordadNews writer)
On this day (Nov 18) in the year of 1907 the newly opened Duma (Russian Parliament) received a report from Isvolsky, the Russian minister for foreign affairs about the division of Iran, our beloved homeland, an independent and a long time mighty empire.
     On August 31, 1907 in St. Petersburg, the Anglo-Russian Convention on Iran, Afghanistan and Tibet were signed aligning Russian with England and France against the Central Powers. This was a very sad and dark day in our entire history; because we lost our independence and integrity without fighting a war, even we were not aware of this dirty conspiracy. This ugly England and Russian plot concluded after a year of secret discussion arranged and brokered by the government of France. Frances’s fear of isolation at the hand of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy caused her to try hard to get Russian and England to solve the existing problems between themselves on Iran, Afghanistan and Tibet with any mean and any price. England also sought reconciliation with its inveterate enemy, Russia.
     The Anglo-Russian Convention settled their differences by establishing separate spheres of influence in Iran. With this agreement, the Triple Entente (Russian, France and England) was complete and France’s fear of the Central Powers ended. The rivalry and hostility between these two alliances was the main origin of WWI.
     According to the Anglo-Russian Convention, Iran was divided in three spheres: the north and the northwestern part (from Qasr-e-Shirin to the Russian-Afghan border) adjacent to the Caucasus, was given to Russia; the southeastern section, bordering India including Birjand and Kerman was to be the English sphere and the central part remained neutral in between, and supposed that maintaining the noninterference section. The Russians relinquished Afghanistan as an English sphere of influence because it was a special interest of England. Tibet was recognized as belonging to China. Therefore the Anglo-Russian conflict of interests was virtually liquidated by the agreements of 1907.
     The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 got it goal as establishment of a military alliance in Europe but failed to build a basement for friendship or co-operation between the two governments.
     On August 31, 1907, a few hours after the Anglo-Russian Convention was singed and sealed in St. Petersburg, in Tehran the premier of Iran, Ali Asghar Khan Atabaack, on his way out of the Majlis was assassinated. The first Majlis, which came to life on October 7,1906 leaned toward England but the Shah was in favor with the Russians. The Majlis received a copy of the Anglo-Russian Convention on October 3, 1907 by Iran’s minister for foreign affairs and rejected it immediately, but with no further action. This copy in the French language had been delivered by the embassy of England in Tehran to Iran’s ministry of foreign affairs on September 23, 1907.
     The England and Russian divided Iran into protecting zones. England created an armed force, The South Persian Rifles or SPR, to protect its interests and Russian created the Cossacks in its sphere. The Shah, Mohammad Ali Qajar had in his command only a Russian officered brigade, which under Lyakhov bombarded the Majlis by cannon. Meanwhile England’s policy of “divide and rule” was at work. Under strong pressure from Russia, Tehran dismissed American W. Morgan Schuster as treasurer general of Iran on which his appointment was the recommendation of Taft, the US president.
     At the end of WWI, because of Russian’s preoccupation with its own revolution, England was the dominant influence in Tehran. Lord Curzon, the foreign secretary of
    England proposed establishing an English protectorate over ran. The Iranian prime minister, Vosugh-ud-dowleh and two members of his cabinet who received a large financial inducement (bribe) from England supported the agreement, so- called “Anglo-Iranian agreement of 1919” and Iran became the English protectorate for a period of time. But when on January 10, 1920 Iran became a member of the League of Nations, England recognized the independence of Iran Then, England for the continuation of his policy, especially with oil, discovered brigadier Reza Khan via Dickson, an English military man working in Tehran, and on February 20, 1921, Reza Khan with his troops marched into Tehran and seized power. Six days later on February 26, 1921, Lenin, the supreme leader of Russia recognized the territorial integrity of Iran, abolished all Russia’s concessions including the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 and disarmed England. Because the oil of Iran was the main goal, on May 28, 1933 a new Anglo-Iranian agreement, which permitted England to extract oil from 250,000 square miles of land was signed but cancelled in 1950 by the people of Iran.




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